Jacalin is a lectin composed of four subunits, two of approximately 10,000 daltons and two of 16,000 daltons each. This 50,000 dalton glycoprotein appears to bind only O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides, preferring the structure galactosyl (b-1,3) N-acetylgalactosamine. This structure (the Thomsen Friedenreich antigen) is the oligosaccharide to which peanut agglutinin binds. However, unlike PNA, Jacalin will bind this structure even in a mono- or disialylated form. This lectin has been used to purify human IgA, since no other human immunoglobulin class binds Jacalin (references available upon request). The specificity of this lectin also affords the opportunity to localize or isolate glycoproteins with O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharide side chains.
For discussion of human IgA and IgD binding by jacalin, see: Mol Immunol 1987 May;24(5):503-11 A lectin with similar subunit composition and immunological properties was found in the seeds of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis). The species A. champeden, A. integer, and A. tonkinensis were found to contain similar lectins. See: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1993 (1156); 219-222
Although both Artocarpus and Arachis lectin are highly specific for tumor associeted T antigenic disaccharide, there are subtle differences in the binding sites of the Artocaprus lectin and the Arachis lectin. See: J. Biolog. Chem. 1986 (261); 11 726- 11 733
A fast growing tree which can produce fruits within 3 years of planting. The fruits are borne on the main trunk and older branches. The jackfruit are the largest of all cultivated fruits. A well-ripe fruit emits a very pleasant smell, has a sweet taste and the flesh is waxy and golden-yellow in colour. Juicy Fruit Gum was fashioned after the flavor of Jack Fruit.
There are more than 100 seeds per fruit. Jackfruit is one of the most popular fruits in Kampuchea where they use green young Jackfruit to cook with curry and other soups. The seeds are as big as quail egg, which are often boiled, fried or roasted with salt. Major lectin in the seeds and pulp is Jacalin. Jacalin binds IgA and Thomsen Friedenreich. Its TF binding inhibits several glycoproteins elaborated by endometrial tissue undergoing disease processes. JAC produced dose-dependent and non-cytotoxic inhibition of proliferation in human colon cancer cells. (J Cell Physiol 2001 Feb;186(2):282-7)
Jacalin has insecticidal activity against Southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata) and potato leafhopper. See: J. Econ. Entomol. 1990 (83); 2480-2485
Jacalin agglutinates all human red blood cells equally well. It also agglutinates erythrocytes from sheep, rabbit, mouse, buffalo, duck and pigeon as well as human and rat sperm. See: Immunol. Invest. 1994 (23); 167-188 Jacalin has potent mitogenic effects. See: J. Immunol. 1985 (134); 1740-1743 It is a T-cell mitogen for human periferal mononuclear cells and is specific for CD4+ lymphocytes. It also induces the production of gamma interferon and secretion of IL-2.