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Triticum aestivium : Wheat germ

Molecular structure of
Wheat germ:WGA

Triticum aestivium

Lecster ID:628 Edit Entry
Source Organism:Wheat germ
Species:Triticum aestivium
Common Nomenclature:WGA
Class:Hevein domain lectin, chitin binding lectin
Index Nomenclature:LECp.Tri.Aes.se.Hch1
Characterization Notes:Most people carry natural antibodies to WGA, although they do not interfere with its agglutinating properties. See: FEBS Lett 1996 Nov 18;397(2-3):139-42 Lipsomal preparations of WGA have potential as oral vaccine carriers.
Biological Activity:Agglutinates group A erythrocytes at a titer of 1:16; group B erythrocytes at a titer of 1 :8; group B erythrocytes at a titer of 1:8; by crude lectin preparation (16mg/ml). See: Int J Cancer 1970;(6):283 For additional characterization of tumor cell specific "wheat germ" agglutinins, with special reference to its reaction with the blood group A substance, see: Z Krebsforsch. 1968;70 (4):350-3. For effects on cholecystokinin release, see: Am J Physiol 1997 Oct;273 (4 Pt 1) :G946-50 WGA agglutinates both human and animal erythrocytes. See: Planta 1982 (154); 562-568

Incorporation of WGA in the diet of rats reduced the digestibility and utilization of dietary proteins and the growth of rats. The lectin binds to the epithelial cells and is a growth factor for the intestine. WGA is also endocytosed by the small intestinal epithelial cells and transcytosed into the systemic circulation. See: Br. J. Nut. 1993 (70) 313-321 WGA is also used in other immunologic applications, such as the fractionalization of bone marrow cells, and separation of mouse spleen B- and T- cells by selective aggltuination of the B-cells with WGA. See: Adv. Immunol. 1983 (34); 213-298

WGA binds to extracellular network produced by cultured human fibroblasts. See: Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2000;38(4):167-73 Wheatgerm agglutinin or Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-I) with ovalbumin stimulated a serum IgG response to ovalbumin (mucosal adjuvant activity) although it was lower than that seen with bacterial toxins. See: Immunology 2001 Jan;102(1):77-86 Following intranasal or oral administration, the systemic and mucosal antibody responses elicited were compared with those induced by a potent mucosal immunogen (cholera toxin; CT) and a poorly immunogenic protein (ovalbumin; OVA) Triticum vulgaris (wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus I (UEA-1) stimulated the production of specific serum IgG and IgA antibody after three i. n. or oral doses. See: Immunology 2000 Jan;99(1):30-7

Wheat germ agglutinin binding to pancreatic cancer cells in vitro results in toxicity. Lectin toxicity corresponded to membrane binding intensity, and was profound in case of WGA (ID50 at 2.5-5 microg ml(-1)). WGA exposure induced chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and DNA release consistent with apoptosis. Important steps for WGA toxicity included binding to sialic acid on swainsonine-sensitive carbohydrate and lectin internalization. There was rapid cellular uptake and subsequent nuclear relocalization of WGA. See: Br J Cancer 1999 Aug;80(11):1754-62 Lectin binding to human colonocytes can predict the presence of malignant and premalignant lesions of the colon, and has potential as a noninvasive screening tool for colorectal neoplasms.

The lectins jacalin (JAC) and wheat germ agglutinin were useful in predicting the presence of a colorectal neoplasm (p = 0.0018 for JAC and p = 0.0099 for WGA. For JAC, sensitivity reached 81
Source Tissue:Seeds. WGA has been found in the root tips and leaves of wheat seedlings.
Specificity:(GlcNAc)2, Neu5Ac, GlcNAc(oligomers>monomer>NANA)
References:Biochem J. 1972 Oct;129(4):847-56. For a discussion of WGA isolectins, see: J. Mol. Biol., 209, 475-487, 1989 and J. Mol. Biol., 215, 635-651, 1990

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2014-4-17: Current Date 13:24:53 GMT: Current Time

By Peter D'Adamo. Copyright 2001-2011.