What makes this study so interesting is the association of diet in addition to A blood type. I am coming to the conclusion that in addition to "antigenic similarity" (ie tumor antigens mimicking blood type antigens), there is also a separate mechanism at work involving co-adjacent alleles on the A gene of the ABO locus coding for separate and additional tumor glycoconjugates.
Interestingly, this also appears to vindicate, of all things, the Japanese concept of blood type and personality, as there are several studies showing that affective behavior, type A personality, neuroticism, and obsessional-compulsive behavior DO have a link to an ABO blood type genetic component, probably by the same mechanism.
In other words, if these personality characteristics are in part genetic, the appearance of one blood type gene over another may well also code for a separate gene regulating these other factors (but you will have to wait for the next book for that one!)
This, by the way, is the suggested mechanism by which ABH "non-secretors" are associated with alcoholism and insulin resistance.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997 Dec;6(12):1065-1069
Diet, Helicobacter pylori, and p53 mutations in gastric cancer: a molecular epidemiology study in Italy.
Palli D, Caporaso NE, Shiao YH, Saieva C, Amorosi A, Masala G, Rice JM, Fraumeni JF Jr
Epidemiology Unit, CSPO, A.O. Careggi, Florence, Italy. email@example.com
A series of 105 gastric cancer (GC) cases with paraffin-embedded specimens interviewed in a previous population-based case-control study conducted in a high-risk area around Florence, Italy, was examined for the presence of p53 mutations. Overall, 33 of 105 cases had a mutation (p53+) identified by single-strand conformational polymorphism and confirmed by sequencing (Y-H. Shiao et al., submitted for publication). p53+ cases had a more traditional dietary pattern (i.e., corn meal mush, meat soup, and other homemade dishes) and reported less frequent consumption of raw vegetables (particularly lettuce and raw carrots). A positive association with a high nitrite intake and a negative association with raw vegetables and diffuse type histology persisted in a multivariate analysis. In addition, p53+ cases tended to be located in the upper portion of the stomach and to be associated with advanced age and blood group A. No relation was found between the presence of p53 mutations and histologically defined Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking history, family history of gastric cancer, education, and social class. Of the 33 p53+ cases, 19 had G:C-->A:T transitions at CpG sites. These tumors tended to occur in females and in association with H. pylori infection but not other risk factors. The remaining 14 cases with a p53 mutation had mainly transversions but also two deletions and two transitions at non-CpG sites. These tumors showed a strong positive association with a traditional dietary pattern and with the estimated intake of selected nutrients (nitrite, protein, and fat, particularly from animal sources). The findings of this case-case analysis suggest that p53 mutations at non-CpG sites are related to exposure to alkylating compounds from diet, whereas p53 mutations at CpG sites might be related to H. pylori infection.