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D blood type  This thread currently has 1,401 views. Print Print Thread
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kauaian
Friday, June 15, 2012, 7:26pm Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Sam Dan
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Can someone tell me what is the D blood type?  My sister has it.
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Conor
Friday, June 15, 2012, 7:45pm Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Are you referring to the 'D antigen'--i.e., a red cell antigen of the Rh blood group system, important in the development of isoimmunization in Rh-negative persons exposed to the blood of Rh-positive persons--rather than her actual blood type?



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Tom Martens
Saturday, June 16, 2012, 12:17am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Quoted from Conor
Are you referring to the 'D antigen'--i.e., a red cell antigen of the Rh blood group system, important in the development of isoimmunization in Rh-negative persons exposed to the blood of Rh-positive persons--rather than her actual blood type?


...During pregnancy?


Be who you are.  Those who mind don't matter, those who matter won't mind.

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M,M LeA+ LeB-

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Conor
Saturday, June 16, 2012, 1:36am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Quoted from Tom Martens
...During pregnancy?

Quoted from Chapter Four of Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens

During pregnancy, some of the mother's antibodies are transported across the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. This is necessary because by the time of birth, newborns have only a primitive immune system, and the continuing presence of maternal antibodies helps ensure that they survive while their immune system matures. A downside to this protection is that by targeting fetal RBCs, maternal antibodies can also cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).

As part of routine prenatal or antenatal care, the blood type of the mother (ABO and Rh) is determined by a blood test. A test for the presence of atypical antibodies in the mother's serum is also performed. At present, Rh D incompatibility is the only cause of HDN for which screening is routine.

In the United States, the frequency of Rh D-negative status varies from about 17-percent in Caucasians to about 7-percent in Hispanics and Blacks. The frequency is much lower in people of Asian descent (including people from China, India, and Japan), averaging about 2-percent.

Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens, Dean L., Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2005.



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kauaian
Saturday, June 16, 2012, 1:44am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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ok, I'm going to have to get the letter from my sis, she went to donate blood & got a letter stating that she had a rare blood type & the blood bank wants to test her siblings.  I called the Dr. & he explained it further to me, it's really mind blowing right now.
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Seraffa
Saturday, June 16, 2012, 2:48am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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So far there's no "C" standalone blood type so there couldn't be a "D" standalone bloodtype.

Unless all AB's intermarry and migrate in some pattern across the earth and start eating different things. Then maybe the babies would be "C"s.


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kauaian
Saturday, June 16, 2012, 5:47am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Update, my sister lacks the Diego blood group antigen which would cause a problem if she was to have a 2nd or subsequent transfusion because then her immune system would most likely make antibodies to the blood.  It is passed down from parents so they are very interested in testing myself & my brother.  The blood bank in Hawaii just recently started testing for this dib- because they had a patient that needed this blood & had to get it out of I think he said the country & of all the registered donors so far, they came up with her.
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Conor
Saturday, June 16, 2012, 7:42am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Quoted from kauaian
Update, my sister lacks the Diego blood group antigen which would cause a problem if she was to have a 2nd or subsequent transfusion because then her immune system would most likely make antibodies to the blood .... The blood bank in Hawaii just recently started testing for this dib- because they had a patient that needed this blood ... of all the registered donors so far, they came up with her.

Interesting ...
Quoted from National Center for Biotechnology Information
The Diego blood group was discovered in 1955 and was named for the first patient to produce an antibody against the new blood system's antigens. The patient, Mrs. Diego, had given birth to a child affected by HDN. Her serum was found to contain an antibody (now called anti-Dia) which, during her pregnancy, had crossed the placenta to attack the RBCs of her fetus (which expressed the Dia antigen).

In 1967, a second Diego antigen, Dib, was discovered. It wasn't until 1995 that other Diego antigens began to be discovered.

At present, 21 Diego antigens are known, but it is the presence or absence of Dia and Dib that is of importance in determining a person's Diego blood type.



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rAw warrior
Saturday, June 16, 2012, 12:53pm Report to Moderator Report to Moderator
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Hmm that IS interesting.
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C_Sharp
Saturday, June 16, 2012, 1:43pm Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Quoted from Seraffa
So far there's no "C" standalone blood type so there couldn't be a "D" standalone bloodtype.

Unless all AB's intermarry and migrate in some pattern across the earth and start eating different things. Then maybe the babies would be "C"s.


in the Rh system normally there are independent values for c
, d, and e.  In the US they normally only tell people there D value since it would cost more to test the c and e values.


Note these values are separate from the Di and Wr values of the Diego system.


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Conor
Saturday, June 16, 2012, 11:30pm Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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In doing further reading pertaining to C_sharp's preceding comments, found this article. A good Rh primer ...

Quoted from Abstract
The Rh blood group system is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic systems known in humans. In the past decade, intense investigation has yielded considerable knowledge of the molecular background of this system. The genes encoding 2 distinct Rh proteins that carry C or c together with either E or e antigens, and the D antigen, have been cloned, and the molecular bases of many of the antigens and of the phenotypes have been determined. A related protein, the Rh glycoprotein is essential for assembly of the Rh protein complex in the erythrocyte membrane and for expression of Rh antigens. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of several aspects of the Rh blood group system, including the confusing terminology, progress in molecular understanding, and how this developing knowledge can be used in the clinical setting. Extensive documentation is provided to enable the interested reader to obtain further information.

The Rh blood group system was first described 60 years ago. A woman had a severe transfusion reaction when she was transfused with blood from her husband following delivery of a stillborn child with erythroblastosis fetalis. Her serum agglutinated red blood cells (RBCs) from her husband and from 80% of Caucasian ABO-compatible donors.1 The following year, Landsteiner and Wiener2 found that sera from rabbits (and later guinea pigs) immunized with RBCs from Macaca mulatta (Macacus rhesus in the original paper) agglutinated 85% of human RBC samples. Initially, it was thought that the animal and human antibodies identified a common factor, Rh, on the surface of rhesus and human RBCs. It was soon realized that this was not the case.3 Therefore, the original terms (Rh factor and anti-Rh) coined by Landsteiner and Wiener, although being misnomers, have continued in common usage. The heteroantibody was renamed anti-LW (after Landsteiner and Wiener), and the human alloantibody was renamed anti-D.4

The Rh blood group system is the most polymorphic of the human blood groups, consisting of at least 45 independent antigens and, next to ABO, is the most clinically significant in transfusion medicine. The ability to clone complementary DNA (cDNA) and sequence genes encoding the Rh proteins has led to an understanding of the molecular bases associated with some of the Rh antigens. Serologic detection of polymorphic blood group antigens and of phenotypes provides a valuable source of appropriate blood samples for study at the molecular level. This review summarizes our present understanding of the complexities of Rh blood group expression and how this knowledge impacts on clinical situations that arise through Rh blood group incompatibility ....


Avent, N., & Reid, M. (2000). The Rh blood group system: a review. Blood: Journal of the American Society of Hematology, 95(2), 375-387.



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D.L.
Monday, June 18, 2012, 12:19am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Conor - If I am Diego Di(a-b+) and Kell Kp(a-b+) and Kidd Jk(a-b+) is it safe to assume that my Lewis type is (a-b+)? I can't find that out specifically and my head is spinning from trying to decipher all the codes, etc.
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Seraffa
Monday, June 18, 2012, 1:05am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Quoted from C_Sharp


in the Rh system normally there are independent values for c
, d, and e.  In the US they normally only tell people there D value since it would cost more to test the c and e values.


Note these values are separate from the Di and Wr values of the Diego system.


....perhaps the next new blood type is better off termed "N" or "F".
Why couldn't they just use a numeric system for the antigens?


INFJ/ENFJ wings 3+4, Numerology: 1
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Conor
Monday, June 18, 2012, 1:40am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Quoted from D.L.
Conor - If I am Diego Di(a-b+) and Kell Kp(a-b+) and Kidd Jk(a-b+) is it safe to assume that my Lewis type is (a-b+)? I can't find that out specifically and my head is spinning from trying to decipher all the codes, etc.

D.L., your head is spinning?!? ... I now have vertigo just from reading your first sentence!

I wish I had an answer for you off the top of my head, but I'm not going to say it's safe to assume anything (I can't even think that word without hearing my seanair's never-failing words about what most oft happens whenever I expletive deleted-u-me ... Edit: the preceding was the word 'assume' written in hyphenated form, but this system's stricter than Sister Mary Margaret. Oops!).

I'll see what information I can find for you, D.L., although I imagine C-sharp already knows the answer to your question ... and may respond before I can find something definitive.



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C_Sharp
Monday, June 18, 2012, 3:52am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Quoted from D.L.
If I am Diego Di(a-b+) and Kell Kp(a-b+) and Kidd Jk(a-b+) is it safe to assume that my Lewis type is (a-b+)?


I fail to follow the logic of why that would be the case.


http://www.drpeterjdadamo.com/wiki/wiki.pl/Blood_group_antigen_proteins_(chart)


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D.L.
Monday, June 18, 2012, 8:53pm Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Not logical, I guess. I've had several blood tests done. No Lewis report. I did the 23 and me. The info I was given on the Diego, Kell, and Kidd were reported to me from 23 and me. They told me they do not report the Lewis. It wouldn't matter to me so much except that Swami asked for the Lewis and I put (ignorantly) the (a-b+) because I thought it was pretty much the same result. Now, I just don't know and you know what they say about curiosity.
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C_Sharp
Monday, June 18, 2012, 9:29pm Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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With genetic testing (as done by 23 & Me and others)-- if you want to determine Secretor status look at FUT2 and if your to look at Lewis look at values for FUT2 & FUT3

Quoted Text
FUT2 and FUT3 loci determines the Lewis phenotype. In the presence of FUT2 alleles that express type 1 H determinants, the phenotype will be Le (a-b+), but individuals in whom the FUT2 gene is not expressed, it will be Le(a+b-). A Le(a+b+) phenotype may occur in individuals in whom the expression of H is decreased due to a mutation in the FUT2 gene (385A>T). This phenotype may also occur due to incomplete fucosylation of type H precursor sites. Failure to express FUT3 will result in a Lewis null phenotype [Le(a-b-)], irrespective of the Secretor status.


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D.L.
Monday, June 18, 2012, 11:50pm Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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C_sharp: I went back and looked at my FUT2 and FUT3 area in 23 and me. I have a long list in both areas with lots of combinations of Cs,As,Ts,and Gs. Also, it says "if you have 2 copies of the A version of this SNP you lack a functioning FUT2 gene." Since mine is AG, not AA, and I'm a secretor, then aren't I (a-b+)? But I didn't see a single H listed anywhere. There's so much to see maybe I missed something. What an education!!!! Should I just remove my Lewis blood type answer from my Swami? Will it matter?
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C_Sharp
Tuesday, June 19, 2012, 1:22am Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Secretors are either a-b+ or a-b-.

Most of of the time a-b+.

Quoted Text
Should I just remove my Lewis blood type answer from my Swami? Will it matter?


In my experience it does not make a difference. In my experience specifying "Secretor" and/or Lewis a-b+ SWAMIs yield the same results.


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D.L.
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Thank you C_sharp and Conor.
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Conor
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Thanks to C_sharp for doing the heavy lifting.



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kauaian
Tuesday, June 19, 2012, 8:45pm Report to Moderator Report to Moderator

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Hi Conor,
Well thank you for the additional info.  I had my very bright nephew (12) look the same thing up online as you provided in your earlier post & that opened up many more interesting questions.  My nephew & I are way more into it than my sister, his mom.  She's like.....ok I guess I donate blood more often & they freeze it for 10 years, no big deal.  Yep here in Hawaii there was a case of a Dib- patient about a month ago so our blood bank began testing for it....so far just sis.  Director of our blood bank called me back because I had a few ? & explained a lot to me.  I told him I had a tiny bit of background on how our blood type is determined because I was on BTD.  He knew all about it & said "Oh so you eat right for your type".  I think he said he was originally from NY.
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Conor
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Quoted from kauaian
Well thank you for the additional info.

He mea iki.



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