No question that the value of the ghee as we are looking at it is the butyrate and I believe the MCT's like caprylate as well. Whatever the value of the CLA is, it is largely undertermined at this point and could be positive or negative for groups of people. The small amounts we deal with naturally seem like an approach that I am more comfortable with at this time for myself.
Quoted from wiki
CLA supplementation has, however, been shown to increase C-reactive protein levels and to induce oxidative stress and to reduce insulin sensitivity and increase lipid peroxidation.
Yes, the hydogenation is a different process than the ghee making. A link from Wiki that glazed my eyes over is available for anyone who is interested.
I've been unsuccesful in finding any composition breakdowns of ghee, only being able to find anhydrous butter oil - which should be essentially the same, the only difference being the processing of the butter. The centrifuging should have zero or negligable effect in the one case, heating the butter in the other (in the presence of metal and air) being apparantly responsible for whatever differences your sources are noting regarding CLA. As far as there being more butyrate in the ghee, with the lack of data available to me I am going to continue to presume that it is the same (or nearly the same) as anhydrous butter oil.
In addition, the CLA content can vary from one cow's milk to the next, so it's possible that some (if not all) of the difference is control related. One would hope they tested the same batch before and after "gheeifying" to eliminate this but I have seen far worse mistakes in otherwise scientific procedings. There are also two different isomers of CLA, the ratio between the two may have some importance as well.
Revision History (2 edits)
Alan_Goldenberg - Thursday, September 6, 2007, 2:30am
Alan_Goldenberg - Thursday, September 6, 2007, 2:25am
A pound of butter has less fat than a pound of ghee. Why? Because there are nonfat ingredients in butter. For the same reason, there is more butyrate (or any other fatty acid found in butterfat) in ghee than butter, but the fat profiles are the same as far as makeup of the total fat by percentage. The change of some of the linoleic bonds to make some of it CLA does not change the amount of linoleic acid in the ghee, just what small percentage of it is this trans fat form.
In order for there to be higher butyrate content as a percentage of the total fat, there would have to be a reduction of some of the other fatty acids. Do some of them dissapear by vaporization in cooking? (possible, trivial) Do some of the chains break into shorter chains? (not aware of this, seems unlikely). Do some of the longer chains otherwise get strained out? (seems unlikely, trivial).
It may be the case that some of the fatty acids are digested into butyrate after ingestion. I would argue that the major advantage of ghee over butter is the lack of milk proteins and sugars rather than anything magical about the ghee itself. Both butter and ghee have relatively low butyrate content as a percentage of total fat but they are still the best natural dietary source for us.
The advantages or disadvantages of CLA differences in ghee relative to butter and relative to how it is cooked is probably minor or trivial in nearly all cases, although I will admit that many of the diet principles work on similar small amounts so I could be wrong here.
Edit: The USDA Nutrient Databse actually shows that there is the same amount of butyrate (4:0) in butter as in anhydrous butter oil per weight, even though there is less total fat. The effect seems to apply also to the MCT's, with long chain fatty accids lower by proportion in butter. If the anhydrous oil was obtained thru clarification or distillation rather than centrifuging this could be explained by the loss of the lighter, shorter chains in the heating process to some extent. I'm curious at this point since the anyhdrous oil could have been created by several differing methods.
Revision History (1 edits)
Alan_Goldenberg - Monday, September 10, 2007, 5:13am
Most of what everyone is talking about here is way over my head. However, in Dr. D'Adamo's Cancer book, when he discusses the meat issue for Type O, he says on p. 52
...Meat products are a source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which can be a potent anticancer agent for Blood TypeO. Furthermore, research conducted since 1999 shows that animals that graze on pasture have from three to five times more CLA than animals fattened on grain in a feedlot. By simply switching from grain-fed to grass-fed meat products, you can greatly reduce your risk of a variety of cancers. Synthetic CLA, available in tablet form, has about half the cancer-fighting potential of CLA in grass-fed meat....
No, sometimes I just get more carried away than others. Research is addictive at times!
Since those posts were written I have determined that Dr D is using the USDA Nutrient Database info on anhydrous butter oil for ghee in his DDA program (part of SWAMI). Based on those tables, butter has a higher content (by weight) of butyrate than ghee. The issue with CLA's is moot in my mind as there is no comparison of butter and ghee available on this point that I can find:
Quoted from National Dairy Council
A variety of factors, such as the cow's diet, can influence the CLA content of milkfat. Because the CLA content of dairy products is related to their fat content, CLA levels are greater in higher fat than in lower fat products. The finding that various dietary manipulations can increase the CLA content of milkfat may open the door for CLA-enriched dairy foods.
In vitro and experimental animal studies document a growing number of potential health benefits for CLA. These include:
Anticarcinogenic Effects. CLA inhibits the proliferation of some cancers such as mammary, colorectal, prostate, and forestomach cancers. Virtually all studies have used synthetic mixtures of CLA. For the first time, an anticarcinogenic effect has been demonstrated for naturally-occurring CLA in food (butter). Antiatherogenic Effects. CLA lowers total and LDL cholesterol as well as triglyceride levels and reduces the severity of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortas of experimental animals. Body Composition Changes. Intake of CLA reduces body fat and increases lean body mass in several species of growing animals. Enhanced Immune Function. CLA enhances select immune responses in experimental animals, while at the same time protecting against immune-induced cachexia or body wasting. Increased Bone Formation. CLA intake by growing animals increases the rate of bone formation by influencing factors that regulate bone metabolism. Anti-Diabetic Effects. CLA improves glucose utilization and reverses symp-toms of diabetes in laboratory animals genetically at risk for this disease.
Of course, as a site promoting dairy products they are not mentioning possible adverse effects for some groups of people. One mans food.....
Using natural feed ingredients, we designed a diet that would enhance the cis-9, trans-11 CLA content of milk fat and collected the milk from cows at Cornell's Teaching an Research Farm. We then collaborated Dr. David Barbano and workers at Cornell's Food Science Department to produce butter. The result was a butter that had a CLA content eightfold greater than control butter.