PATHBASE
A database of blood group correlations to common diseases



Total number of records: 145 Matching records: 1

Cancer, Leukemia, Lymphoma


Description:Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) the bone marrow cells of a 75-year-old woman showed three different karyotypes Six months after transformation, her red cells showed reduced expression of A and Leb antigens. Serum alpha-n-3-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase (blood group A transferase) and red cell adenylate kinase were both reduced.(1)

Loss of A, B, and H antigens from the surface of red blood cells has been a recurrent observation in patients with hematologic malignancy, particularly those malignancies in which the myeloid lineage is involved. ifty-five percent (16/29) of patients of blood group A, B, or AB had a proportion of red cells with decreased expression of A or B antigens compared with no changes in 127 healthy A, B, and AB individuals. In most cases, the changes were not detected by routine serologic typing. The loss of A or B antigens was the primary change in 28% (8/29) of patients. In 17% (5/29) of patients, loss of A or B antigens was an indirect consequence of loss of the precursor H antigen. Alterations involving both the H and the A or B antigens were seen in 10% (3/29) of patients. Loss of H was also detected in 21% (6/28) of group O patients whereas none of 51 healthy O individuals showed changes. Alterations of ABO antigens can now be considered a common event in myeloid malignancy. (4)

Acute leukemia is more common in males at almost every age, and this fact remains unexplained. A study was carried out in northeast peninsular Malaysia, where the population is predominantly Malay, to examine whether there was a difference in ABO blood group distribution between males and females with acute leukemia (AL). The ABO blood groups of 109 male and 79 female patients with AL (98 ALL, 90 AML) were compared with those of 1019 controls. In the control population, 39.7% were group O. Among males with AL, 39.4% were group O, whereas among females with AL, the proportion was 24.1% (p=0.03). The same trend to a lower proportion of group O among females was seen if the group was divided into adult/pediatric or lymphoblastic/myeloblastic groups, though these differences were not statistically significant. If these findings can be confirmed, they suggest the presence of a "sex-responsive" gene near to the ABO gene locus on chromosome 9, which relatively protects group O women against AL, at least in our population. The existence of such a gene might also partly explain why acute leukemia, and possibly other childhood cancers, are more common in males.(2)

Among leukemia patients, a significant increase in the frequency of the A2 phenotype was found in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Possible mechanisms underlying the predisposition of individuals with the A2 blood group to chronic lymphocytic leukemia suggested by these preliminary results are discussed. (3)

In lymphoma Group O is associated with the best clinical outcomes.
References:1. Marsden KA, Pearse AM, Collins GG, Ford DS, Heard S, Kimber RI. Acute leukemia with t(1;3)(p36;q21), evolution to t(1;3)(p36;q21), t(14;17)(q32;q21), and loss of red cell A and Le(b) antigens. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1992 Nov;64(1):80-5.

2. Jackson N, Menon BS, Zarina W, Zawawi N, Naing NN. Why is acute leukemia more common in males? A possible sex-determined risk linked to the ABO blood group genes. Ann Hematol. 1999 May;78(5):233-6.

3. Janardhana V, Propert DN, Green RE. ABO blood groups in hematologic malignancies. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1991 Jan;51(1):113-20.

4. Bianco T, Farmer BJ, Sage RE, Dobrovic A. Loss of red cell A, B, and H antigens is frequent in myeloid malignancies. Blood. 2001 Jun 1;97(11):3633-9.





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By Peter D'Adamo. Copyright 2001-2011.