PATHBASE
A database of blood group correlations to common diseases



Total number of records: 145 Matching records: 1

Cancer, Stomach


Description:Stomach cancer was one of the earliest diseases ever shown to be associated with blood type, an association first discovered in the early 1950s. Originally, it was thought that the tendency for Type A towards low stomach acid may have been the provocative factor, but other causes may be more important. The genetic ability for cells of the stomach to turn cancerous has been shown to be linked to the ABO gene locus itself, on chromosome 9q34. In this case, the A allele itself is contributing to the genetic mutations in the stomach, another instance of the link between a blood type and disease not being the result of physical expression of blood type, per se, but rather genetic linkage

Many malignant cells (such as those found in breast and stomach cancer) develop a tumor marker called the Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen. This antigen is suppressed in normal healthy cells, much like a rock is covered over by water at high tide. (Figure 1) T antigen only becomes unsuppressed as a cell moves towards malignancy, much like the covered rock in our example becomes uncovered as the tide moves out. It is so rare to find the Tn antigen in healthy tissue, that most people actually have an antibody to it.

The T antigen is exuberantly expressed in cells of the stomach that turn cancerous. About one-third of all Japanese express some T antigen in apparently normal stomach tissue, and this may also help explain why stomach cancer rates in Japan are among the highest in the world.The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen shows some structural similarity to the A antigen. Perhaps this explains why of all the blood types, Type A stomach cancer patients carry the least amount of the anti-T antibody. Since gastric juice is typically loaded with blood type antigens anyway, it is not unlikely that Type A and Type AB would be at a disadvantage at recognizing the T antigens as cancer markers, or mounting a defense if they did.

Many gastric cancer cases cases have a mutation (p53+) identified by single-strand conformational polymorphism and confirmed by sequencing. This is sassociated both with diet and blood group A.(4)
Thomsen-Friedenreich revisited.

As we will see in more detail in chapter xx, many malignant cells (such as those found in breast and stomach cancer) develop a tumor marker called the Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen. This antigen is suppressed in normal healthy cells, much like a rock is covered over by water at high tide. (Figure 1) T antigen only becomes 'unsuppressed' as a cell moves towards malignancy, much like the covered rock in our example becomes uncovered as the tide moves out. It is so rare to find the Tn antigen in healthy tissue, that most people actually have and antibody to it.

Tn is exuberantly expressed in cells of the stomach which turn cancerous. Curiously, about 1/3 of all Japanese express some T antigen in apparently normal stomach tissue. (44) However, this may also help explain why stomach cancer rates in Japan are among the highest in the world.

The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen shows some structural similarity to the A antigen even though it is derived from the M blood type antigen. (175) Perhaps this explains why of all the blood types, type A stomach cancer patients carry the least amount of the anti-T antibody of all the ABO blood types.(45) Since gastric juice is typically loaded with blood type antigens anyway, it is not unlikely that type A and AB would be at a disadvantage at recognizing the T antigens as cancer markers - and even if they do would not likely not mount much of an antibody response to them.

The exuberant secretion of type A antigen in stomach cancer is not limited to those who are type A blood. Large amounts of A antigen have also been observed in the less common tumors of types B and O. It appears that the progression of stomach cells to stomach cancer involves a necessary mutation at the ABO gene, the result of which is the production of A antigen, even if this is not the person's blood type. Of course having a blood type such as O or B and capable of attacking A-like things, such as cancer cells, gives these blood types a considerable advantage. Conversely, it appears that stomach and intestinal pre-cancerous and cancer cells tend to lose the H and B antigens, making immune detection in these blood types more likely. (46)
References:1.Clausen H, et al . Monoclonal antibodies directed to the blood group A associated structure, galactosyl-A: specificity and relation to the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen. Mol Immunol. 1988 Feb;25(2):199-204.

2. Yoshida A, et al Different expression of Tn and sialyl-Tn antigens between normal and diseased human gastric epithelial cells Acta Med Okayama. 1998 Aug;52(4):197-204.

3. Kurtenkov O, Klaamas K, Miljukhina L The lower level of natural anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TFA) agglutinins in sera of patients with gastric cancer related to ABO(H) blood-group phenotype. Int J Cancer 1995 Mar 16;60(6):781-5

4. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997 Dec;6(12):1065-9 Diet, Helicobacter pylori, and p53 mutations in gastric cancer: a molecular epidemiology study in Italy. Palli D, Caporaso NE, Shiao YH, Saieva C, Amorosi A, Masala G, Rice JM, Fraumeni JF Jr





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2014-11-27: Current Date 5:39:52 GMT: Current Time


PathType is a searchable database of blood group and disease associations, clinical correlates and citations.
By Peter D'Adamo. Copyright 2001-2011.