Dear Dr. Greenfield,
I have decided to try the blood type diet (A). I am aware that Dr. D'Adamo suggests avoiding smoked meat and seafood. I am assuming this is due to the nitrate/nitrite added to the food. However, I shop at Whole Foods Market and they smoke their seafood in house, naturally, without any preservatives. Would this be okay to eat on the blood type diet?
Smoking is a way of preserving foods using smoke typically from hardwood burnt at low temperatures: Certain compounds given off by burning wood have a preservative or antimicrobial effect on the food, and add flavour. Other compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have a detrimental effect on human health at levels found in cooked foods, they are certainly a risk for workers occupationally exposed to PAHs, and also for cigarette smokers. Certain PAHs may become more toxic when metabolised, and metabolism can be dependent on individual polymorphisms. For example, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is the primary cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme that biologically activates benzopyrene, a tetracyclic hydrocarbon present in smoked food, and the main carcinogen in cigarette smoke. Charbroiled and smoked meats and fish contain more PAHs than uncooked products, with up to 2.0 µg/kg of benzopyrene detected in smoked fish.
Some people may be more at risk from eating smoked foods or other exposure to PAHs: Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1 inducibility has been implicated as a factor for susceptibility to lung and laryngeal cancer. CYP1A1 may be induced by other substances. The mechanism by which PAH causes cancer is thought to be via the binding of metabolites to DNA. Infants may be at risk for exposure to PAHs: Animal studies have shown that PAHs and metabolites cross the placenta; Because PAHs are excreted in breast milk, nursing infants of exposed mothers can be exposed through breastfeeding. Polymorphisms causing glutathione transferase deficiencies (GSTM1) may result in elevated breast cancer risk from PAHs. Other risk factors may include blood group, with type A individuals having a greater risk of certain types of cancer, although this can be masked by other genetic factors overriding the blood group phenotype.
Sodium nitrite (E250) is a preservative added to meats, which can form carcinogenic nitrosamines when exposed to high temperatures. Nitrosamine formation can be inhibited by the addition of vitamin C.
The Blood Type Diet™ is based on naturopathic principles, and as such advocates avoiding or minimising consumption of foods that may enhance disease risk either for the individual or for the population in general.
1. Grimmer G. 1968. "Carcinogenic hydrocarbons in the human environment". Dtsch Apoth Ztg 108:529.
2. van der Hel OL, Peeters PH, Hein DW, Doll MA, Grobbee DE, et al. "NAT2 slow acetylation and GSTM1 null genotypes may increase postmenopausal breast cancer risk in long-term smoking women." Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Jul;13(7):399-407. Pubmed.
3. Anderson DE, Haas C. "Blood type A and familial breast cancer." Cancer. 1984 Nov 1;54(9):1845-9. PubMed.
4. Mackerness CW, Leach SA, Thompson MH, Hill MJ. "The inhibition of bacterially mediated N-nitrosation by vitamin C: relevance to the inhibition of endogenous N-nitrosation in the achlorhydric stomach." Carcinogenesis 1989; 10(2) 397-399. PubMed.
Dear Dr. Greenfield,
I am a 42 year old woman with RLS. I have it since I was 20, with alternating good and bad periods.
It affects me especially in my sleep. I am a 0+, Gatherer.
Are there any natural supplements I can take which could make a difference?
Thanks and kind regards,
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder are characterized during waking by an irresistible urge to move the legs while awake, and involuntary leg movements while asleep.
For people with a family history of RLS, it is worth considering whether there is a genetic influence on the condition: researchers have found several genetic loci associated with RLS in an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern .
One of the genetic influences may involve an increased need for folate . Individuals with polymorphisms for folate metabolism often do better taking an active form of folic acid such as folinate, rather than the commonly available folic acid supplements. Although folic acid improves methylation in all GenoTypes, GT4 Explorers are more prone to folic acid deficiency anaemia; GT1 Hunters and GT6 Nomads may also need folate to slow down their rapidly aging genes .
Researchers have also found that iron supplementation may improve the symptoms of RLS , reducing fluctuations in dopamine levels in the brain at night. Patients with RLS have lower levels of dopamine and respond to iron administration . Caffeine, nicotine, alcohol and medication that affects dopamine levels may induce RLS as a side effect. It is recommended to check ferritin (iron storage) levels before supplementing with iron, as ferritin levels are often lower than average in RLS sufferers. There are strong indications that a gene regulating dopamine beta hydroxylase activity is linked to the ABO blood group locus , and altered dopamine levels may be associated with blood type.
Finally, osteopathic manipulative therapy has been found to decrease spinal facilitation in a small pilot study, relieving symptoms in many patients with RLS .
1. Dhawan V, Ali M, Chaudhuri KR. "Genetic aspects of restless legs syndrome." Postgrad Med J. 2006 Oct;82(972):626-9. PubMed
2. Lee KA, Zaffke ME, Baratte-Beebe K.J. "Restless legs syndrome and sleep disturbance during pregnancy: the role of folate and iron." Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001 May;10(4):335-41. PubMed
3. Dadamp, P. The GenoType Diet. Broadway Books, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7679-2524-2
4. Patrick LR. "Restless legs syndrome: pathophysiology and the role of iron and folate." Altern Med Rev. 2007 Jun;12(2):101-12. PubMed
5. Wilson AF, Elston RC, Siervogel RM, Tran LD. "Linkage of a gene regulating dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity and the ABO blood group locus". Am J Hum Genet 1988;42:160-166. PubMed
6. Peters T W, "Restless Legs", Osteopathy Today, October 2001. P12-13.
The first European IfHI certification and training session took place in Ireland on July 4th 2009, with several practitioners and one member of the public. As reported in a previous post, Dr. Prannie Rhatigan MIfHI organised the seminar in conjunction with the Dublin Nutri Centre, and had run prior introductory sessions with guided study. Nick Bowler MIfHI gave an overview of the GenoType Diet and Tom Greenfield presented a preview of SWAMI GenoType to the group. Most attendees were from Ireland, with one practitioner from the UK, and an enthusiastic member of the public who had been following the Blood Type Diet for a number of years.
All the practitioners took the IfHI certification, which will hopefully result in the first European-certified Level 1 graduates (this is the equivalent of FIfHI certification). The newly certified practitioners should be visible on the IfHI practitioner list soon.
The success of this venture will most likely result in another IfHI training and certification in the UK in 2010.
An extract of the seaweed Lithothamnion corallioides from Ireland has been the subject of a clinical trial with patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee. The seaweed extract containing minerals was compared to glucosamine sulfate, and both products demonstrated improvements in those taking them.
Comparing 6-Minute Walking Distances and the WOMAC Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis Index, 70 subjects with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the knee were placed into 4 random groups and took either the seaweed mineral extract (2400 mg), glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg), both, or a placebo. The seaweed mineral and glucosamine groups demonstrated significant improvements in 6 minute walking distances, but the placebo and combination groups did not.
The WOMAC index grades pain, stiffness and physical function over specific activities. Significant differences were found between groups for pain scores after 12 weeks of treatment. The seaweed extract treatment group showed significantly improved WOMAC pain, stiffness, activity and composite scores over the course of the 12-week treatment. No significant improvements were found for subjects in the placebo group or for subjects in the combination treatment group.
The authors hypothesize that there could be an interaction in the stomach between the alkaline seaweed minerals and the acid glucosamine, which has to ionize in the stomach to be effective.
NAP Phytocal and Clearcal contain minerals from Lithothamnion corallioides, and are suitable for specific or all blood groups.
1. Frestedt JL, Walsh M, Kuskowski MA, Zenk JL. "A natural mineral supplement provides relief from knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized controlled pilot trial." Nutr J. 2008 Feb 17;7:9. PMID 18279523
Blood Typers wanting to get a Blood Type certification in Europe will be able to take the IfHI test in Ireland on Independence day. A certification exam will be offered to those who have completed the two-day training with Dr. Prannie Rhatigan at the Nutri Centre in Dublin. A successful introductory day has already been held, another introductory day for those who missed the first one will be scheduled. Day two will be the Preparation for Level 1 (Fellow) certification and distribution of exam papers on Saturday 4th July 2009, Time 10am -4.30.
Guest lecturers scheduled to speak at Day Two are Nick Bowler, biochemist and head of NAP Europe, and Tom Greenfield ND, blood type practitioner from Canterbury, UK.
... more details to follow shortly.