A review of recent articles relating to cancer:
- Breast Cancer and Lewis Blood Group
- Genetic Links to Breast Cancer
- Breast Screening Ineffective?
- Hormone Replacement Therapy is a Carcinogen
- Obesity and Cancer
- Nanotechnology Kills Cancer Cells
- Pineapple and Cancer
Breast Cancer and Lewis Blood Group
This study in Breast Cancer Research shows a connection between the Lewis blood group and breast cancer.
It is well known that blood group antigens are often altered in the process of cells becoming cancerous. The Lewis blood group antigens (Lewis a and Lewis b) are used to determine secretor status from blood testing, and have isomers (compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures) called Lewis x and Lewis y. The Lewis y antigen is mainly expressed in the growing embryo, in adults it is mainly found in epithelium (tissue composed of a layer of cells, whose functions include secretion, absorption and protection).
Lewis y has been found to be over-expressed in most cancers originating from epithelial tissues, including breast, ovary, pancreas, prostate, colon and some lung cancers.
In the study the patients with invasive breast cancer and higher expression of Lewis y/b antigens tended to have more advanced tumours with a poorer prognosis. Of those patients with higher Lewis y/b expression, those without cancer cells in their lymph nodes were found to have significantly decreased survival.
This is significant for patients being treated for breast cancer who have been found to be lymph node negative, as in addition to their tumour size and grade those with higher Lewis y/b expression may have a poorer prognosis according to the research.
Breast cancer is already known to have a stronger association with ABH secretors (Lewis a-b+) as well as with individuals of blood group A.
High expression of Lewisy/b antigens is associated with decreased survival in lymph node negative breast carcinomas
Madjd Z, Parsons T, Watson NFS, Spendlove I, Ellis I, Durrant LG
Breast Cancer Research 2005, 7:R780-R787 (28 July 2005)
Hormone Replacement Therapy is a Carcinogen
The World Health Authority (WHO) has confirmed that Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is cancer-causing. For women taking combined estrogen-progestogen HRT, after five years the risk of breast cancer is increased by four extra cases for every 1000 women.
The WHO also said that the combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptive pill slightly increases the risk of breast, cervix and liver cancer.
The British Medical Journal summarised the risks of using HRT as follows:
- Information about risk of breast cancer with hormone replacement therapy is conflicting
- Data that can be used to derive individual risk are presented to help decision making
- Cumulative absolute risk of breast cancer (to 79 years) falls with increasing age in women who do not take hormone replacement therapy
- Use of hormone replacement therapy increases a woman's cumulative risk only slightly
- The effect on the general incidence of breast cancer incidence would be greater
Incorporating biometric measurements of individuals, such as blood group, secretor status, dermatoglyphics and ear wax type could refine individual risk much further. Patients should not stop taking medication without consulting a licensed healthcare practitioner.
BBC News29th July 2005
Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer: estimate of riskCoombs NJ, Taylor R, Wilcken N, Boyages J.BMJ 2005;331:347-349
Genetic Link to Breast Cancer
Scientists are finding more genes linked to the development and progression of breast cancer, and also when it is likely to spread to the lungs. Several genes, which are either inherited or altered during a woman's lifetime, have already been identified.
Inherited defective genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for fewer than 1 in 20 breast cancer cases. In addition a genetic connection links 9q34 (the ABO blood group locus) to breast cancer in individuals of blood group A.
Scientists have now pinpointed another fault which can develop - and have identified four genes which could be the culprit.
The study, in the journal Oncogene, found the fault in a quarter of breast tumours analysed. Researchers at the University of Cambridge examined the tissue of 33 breast tumours and also breast cancer cells grown in the laboratory, focusing on chromosome 8 which had previously been identified as a possible place for cancer-related gene faults. Using microarrays (DNA sequencing), they were able to narrow down which of the hundreds of genes were likely to be actively involved in tumour development.
Four candidate genes were identified on a specific area of chromosome 8. People should have two copies of the whole chromosome, but women with this genetic fault had multiple copies of this particular fragment containing the four potential culprit genes: FLJ14299, C8orf2, BRF2 and RAB11FIP. This pattern was seen in eight out of the 33 tumours studied.
Patients with multiple copies of these chromosome fragments may be at higher risk for having more aggressive tumours, and could be given more intensive treatment.
Another study published in Nature has found a genetic "signature" that could help predict when breast cancer is more likely to spread to the lungs. A "thumbprint" of genetic activity has been identified involving 54 genes that appeared to be particularly associated with lung metastasis.
More than half the patients with this "thumbprint" went on to develop lung metastases, compared with only 10% whose primary tumours did not carry the gene set.
Garcia MJ, Pole JC, Chin SF et. alA 1 Mb minimal amplicon at 8p11-12 in breast cancer identifies new candidate oncogenes.ncogene. 2005 Aug 4;24(33):5235-45.
Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to lungMinn AJ, Gupta GP, Siege PM, et. al.Nature 436, 518-524 (28 July 2005)
The Complete Blood Type Encyclopedia
Skin Cancer Court Claims?
Travel companies are in danger of being sued by holidaymakers who develop skin cancer.
People from the cold and cloudy UK who are suffering from skin cancer after holidaying abroad could soon start pushing claims through the courts for a failure of the industry to protect them from the effects of over-exposure to the sun.
A study from Cardiff University has warned that tourism could go the same way as the tobacco industry, who are being sued by smokers with lung cancer.
The sun is not the only influencing factor in skin cancer: research shows individuals of blood group O have a lower survival rate from melanoma than those of other blood groups. If travel companies offer warnings about the risks of the sun, they could also mention that a person's weight, sex and blood group can influence their susceptibility to and survival from melanoma, and recommend drinking green tea (see below, and previous commentary on melanoma). Some think that it is not sun exposure that increases risk of melanoma, but deficiency of antioxidants and other nutrients. Sun exposure is necessary for may people to boost levels of vitamin D.
Obesity and Cancer
Women who are obese are up to 36% more likely to develop cancer those of a healthy weight.
Research that looked at nearly 70 000 people in Sweden concludes that almost one in 14 cancers in women are due to overweight and obesity and are therefore avoidable, according to a study in the International Journal of Cancer
"In women, a positive association between BMI [Body Mass Index] and overall cancer risk emerged, mainly driven by the strong effects of elevated BMI on the incidence of endometrial, ovarian and colon cancers as well as melanoma".
This strong adverse effect of BMI on risk of uterine cancer is believed to be due to alterations in the synthesis of hormones caused by increased body fat: both obesity and uterine cancer risk have been associated with decreased synthesis of progesterone in premenopausal women and with increased circulating oestrogens after menopause.
In men no association between BMI and overall cancer risk was shown. This was probably due to the numbers of prostate and respiratory tract cancers, which accounted for more than 40% of all malignancies. Obese men were, however, at a higher risk of developing kidney cancer and colon cancer.
The authors point out that 12% of the men and women in the study were obese, a considerably lower proportion than in the general population in a number of countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States.
Body mass index and cancer: Results from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease CohortInternational Journal of Cancer Annekatrin Lukanova 1 2, Ove Björ 3, Rudolf Kaaks et. al.
Breast Screening Ineffective
Breast cancer screening in "real world" situations is not effective in preventing mortality, says a US case control study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute:
"Conclusions: In this community-based study, screening history was not associated with breast cancer mortality. However, potential limitations of this study argue for a cautious interpretation of these findings."
Randomised controlled studies have shown that breast cancer screening prevents deaths. Many organisations recommend screening by clinical examination and mammography every year or two for women aged 40 or older.
"We observed no appreciable association between breast cancer mortality and screening history, [regardless of age or risk level]... Our findings may, therefore, reflect a possible reduction in the accuracy of screening as it moves from highly controlled randomised trials to real-life clinical practice."
The study looked at the history of screening in the three years before their diagnosis of cancer in women who died of breast cancer. They compared these screening rates with those in a control group of cancer-free women. Screening rates in the two groups did not differ.
The screening was by clinical examination alone, mammography alone, or clinical examination and mammography. Mortality did not differ according to type of screening.
Despite the findings, the leader of the study Dr Joann Elmore said that she still recommended screening: "Some people say we should pay more attention to women at high risk, but the majority of women who develop breast cancer don't have risk factors."
An accompanying editorial said that breast cancer screening in the community may be less effective than in controlled trial situations because of problems implementing programmes.
Women are now more aware of the importance of checking out small lumps, and better treatment may mean that screening is less necessary than previously, because treatment of later stage cancers may still be effective.
Meanwhile in the New England Journal of Medicine a study showed how certain types of benign breast disease have a higher risk for breast cancer even if there is no family history of breast cancer. Although most non-cancerous breast lumps do not increase future risk of breast cancer, the researchers found faster growing and more abnormal types did.
Efficacy of Breast Cancer Screening in the Community According to Risk LevelJournal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 97, No. 14, 1035-1043, July 20, 2005
Benign Breast DisordersSanten RJ, Mansel R.NEJM, Volume 353:275-285
Nanotechnology Kills Cancer Cells
Carbon nanotubules half the width of a DNA molecule are being used to kill cancer cells.
Under normal circumstances near-infra red light passes through the body harmlessly. Researchers found that if they placed a solution of carbon nanotubules under a near-infra red laser beam, the solution heated up to about 70C in two minutes. They then placed the tubules inside cells, and found they were quickly destroyed by the heat generated by the laser beam.
The nanotubules were introduced into cancer cells, but not healthy cells.
The researchers did this by taking advantage of the fact that, unlike normal cells, the surface of cancer cells is covered with receptors for a vitamin known as folate. They coated the nanotubules with folate molecules, making it easy for them to pass into cancer cells, but unable to bind with healthy cells. Exposure to the laser then killed off the diseased cells, but left the healthy ones unharmed.
The researchers said: "Further research will be crucial to see whether these effects can be reproduced in the more complex environment of a tumour and, ultimately, the human body."
Pineapple and Cancer
Scientists at the Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR) have discovered two molecules from pineapple stems that show anti-tumour activity in laboratory studies.
One molecule called CCS blocks a protein called Ras, which is defective in approximately 30% of all cancers. The other molecule called CCZ, stimulates the body's own immune system to target and kill cancer cells.
The team at QIMR discovered CCS and CCZ while investigating the properties of bromelain, a crushed pineapple stem extract. Bromelain is a rich source of enzymes and is widely used as a meat tenderiser, to clarify beer and tan leather hides. They discovered that bromelain also had some pharmacological properties and could activate specific immune cells while, simultaneously, blocking the immune function of other cells.
"CCS and CCZ are the first examples of proteases that have been shown to modulate cell signal transduction pathways and have specific immunomodulatory activities," said Dr Mynott.
"The way CCS and CCZ work is different to any other drug in clinical use today. Therefore, CCS and CCZ will represent a totally new way of treating disease and potentially a whole new class of anti-cancer agent. In general, products with novel mechanisms of action are more likely to represent real breakthroughs in the treatment or prevention of disease."
Bromelain is also known to have significant antitumour effects when injected directly into mice.
QIMRModulation of murine tumor growth and colonization by bromelaine, an extract of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosum L.).In Vivo. 2005 Mar-Apr;19(2):483-5.Beuth J, Braun JM.
TITLE: Vegetarian or Omnivore?
One of the most controversial aspects of the BTD from the point of view of a 'healthy diet' is the fact that eating meat is recommended for some blood groups, and just about compulsory for blood group O. This emotive subject has already been discussed in depth on www.dadamo.com , but still remains an issue for many people.
Although it is possible to eat only raw vegetable foods and remain perfectly healthy, the fallacy that naturopathy is based on an exclusively vegetarian or vegan diet is put forward by those looking to ban meat eating completely. Many naturopathic pioneers commented that indigenous people remained vigorously healthy on their local diets, whether it consisted mainly of meats, fish or vegetables, and some would starve without meat (1).
An acupuncturist colleague commented: "Of the patients I see in my clinic the most difficult to help are O group former vegetarians". She sees that their vitality has been worn down by what is considered an organ deficiency in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and may take a long time to build up again. One could add that current O vegetarians are sometimes even harder to help - those who know they should be eating meat, but refuse to do so. It has certainly been the case that amongst those seen in my practice who have had the greatest benefit from dietary changes alone are the blood group O vegetarians who have started eating meat and stopped eating large amounts of starch.
Can an O follow the BTD and remain healthy without eating meat, just concentrating on vegetable proteins, nuts and seeds? It has been suggested that there are some supplements and herbs that can help, but these may not always be a complete substitute for eating animal flesh. Some O vegetarians appear to remain perfectly healthy, and that's fine. We are all born with a certain level of vitality depending on how fit and well nourished our family was, and our exposure to food and environmental factors in childhood will further determine how well we cope with the stresses of life. But some just don't do well without eating meat.
The real key to this seems to be why that person is vegetarian. It seems obvious enough to say that if it is for health reasons and they are blood group O for example, then they are simply mistaken that eating meat is unhealthy for them, there is plenty of evidence to support this. If it is because they do not like the taste, then it is just a case of gradually getting used to it. But if it is for reasons of compassion for the animal, this often needs to be explored in greater depth on an individual level.
A decision to include or exclude meat from the diet should take blood group, Rhesus factor and secretor status into account as well as health. Practitioners need to be supportive of the inevitable moral and ethical issues faced by people who may be under pressure of their genetic inheritance to change their habits of a lifetime.
My favourite observation on this subject is by Daverick Leggett, a highly respected Qi Gong, nutrition and TCM teacher (and ex-smallholder) in the UK. Daverick comments that from the oriental point of view, which is based on thousands of years of observation, meat and dairy are both highly respected as powerful nutritious foods, and are therefore generally eaten in small quantities. Excess meat can result in the accumulation of dampness, and often heat (characteristics found in the body that are used in oriental diagnosis).
"For many people, opening their awareness to receive the pain of the animal reared for meat is unbearable and they turn to vegetarianism. Others continue to eat meat in the spirit of reverence and thanks. Many rarely give it a thought and yet remain relatively healthy. My own view is that meat eaten with awareness, from a place of informed choice, is a perfectly healthy practice and for some people a very necessary one...
"For those who choose vegetarianism as their dietary path I would like to add one or two words of advice: without the quick fix of meat it is important to give more attention to balancing the diet and including good quality vegetable protein. The system will also be more clean on a good vegetarian diet. This means that imbalance will be registered more easily. Vegetarians are therefore advised to be especially careful with sugar and caffeine which meat eaters will tolerate more easily. In fact, there is often a tendency to binge on sugar and starch to compensate for the lack of animal fats and protein...
"Lastly, vegetarianism is best supported by spiritual belief, a trust that all necessary nourishment is available through our relationship with the divine. When we investigate our beliefs as vegetarians, we often find places of denial, places in the psyche that crave meat, that repress meat-eating as part of a more deep suppression of the life force. I encourage the exploration of these places so that ultimately one might embrace a more full and life-affirming vegetarian practice. It is my experience that those whose vegetarianism is supported by positive life-affirming beliefs rather than guilt and denial, or even the retreat from pain, generally maintain full vitality. When vegetarianism is ensnared in righteous anger or suppression of instinct, it is rarely supportive of full vitality. A healthy vegetarianism is rooted in the practice of listening to the body and mediating with the realities of today's world" (2). After many years of vegetarianism, Daverick eventually came round to the idea that he needed to eat some meat.
On the spiritual issue mentioned by Daverick, many find it helpful to pray over their food. This can be simply saying Grace, but a more specific prayer is to say: "thank you for giving your body", and after eating: "now my body is fit to help others". There is scientific evidence that prayer has a perceptible effect on the subject (3).
The scientist Rudolf Steiner, founder of the Biodynamic movement in agriculture, said that when the human being eats animal protein, "the 'cosmic images' revealed to him in this process are quite different to him when he eats plants. The information carried in the plant has been absorbed by the animal. We are confronted with information about the building up of a body suitable for the manifestation of the animal soul, as expressed in behaviour and instincts. Is this information of use to us in building up our own human bodies? In so far as out bodies are the instruments of instincts and inherited behaviour, yes, it can be, but if we wish to fine-tune this instrument to become sensitive for soul/spiritual work, requiring the most subtle configuration of nervous tissue, it may be a burden. So there is a question of how flesh-eating may affect the consciousness of the human being as well as his metabolism" (4). Steiner was himself a vegetarian (although suffered from health problems), but commented that "Not everyone can become a vegetarian in one lifetime".
Irrespective of blood group, if one decides to eat meat for whatever reason it is essential to get the best quality available. The way that this food is produced on an industrial scale to provide large amounts of protein at extremely low prices involves cruelty and exploitation on a massive scale, as well as practices potentially dangerous to humans. For example, the US Government Accountability Office examined scientific evidence on the transference of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans and extent of potential harm to human health.
"Scientific evidence has shown that certain bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics are transferred from animals to humans through the consumption or handling of meat that contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, researchers disagree about the extent of harm to human health from this transference" (5).
The United States and Canada allow antibiotics important in human medicine to be used for growth promotion of meat stocks, but the European Union (EU) and New Zealand (NZ) do not. This means that these antibiotics are not routinely used in food production in the EU and NZ, although they may often be used specifically to treat animal infection (found extensively in factory farming). Inevitably this leads to human infection with superbugs resistant to all known antibiotics (MRSA).
The issue of animal cruelty was never so clear to me as during my visit to Arizona in 2003 when I passed a feedlot. The conditions under which those cows were kept in a compound feeding on fermenting silage are so different to the situation of the beef cattle I can see from my window grazing on a field of grass. Although it is not entirely natural to keep cows in an open field on a monoculture of one type of grass (they prefer a mixture of different types of grasses and herbs and need shelter from the weather), it is by far preferable to the situation of their relatives in the feedlot. Compassion has been replaced by greed in the search for cheap food, and the real cost of producing meat is hidden by farming subsidies. This article cannot fully explore the global environmental benefits of eating less meat: that issue has been covered extensively elsewhere (6).
The decision to be a vegetarian or omnivore today requires being faced with many choices, not least of which involve considering how one's genetic inheritance fits within the greater scheme of the interaction between humans and animals.
1. Greenfield, T. Blood grouping in naturopathic practice. BNJ, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2003, pp.12-16.
2. Daverick Leggett, 'Recipes for Self-Healing', Meridan Press, 1999. ISBN 0952464020. pp. 279-80.
3. The Power of Prayer Made Visible http://www.spiritofmaat.com/archive/aug1/consciouswater.html
4. Wendy E. Cook, 'Foodwise', Clairview Books, 2003. ISBN 1902636392. p. 137.
5. Antibiotic Use in Animals
6. Compassion in World Farming report
Nature-cure, or the healing power of Nature, is the guiding principle behind naturopathic medicine. It is present in every living thing as the ability to restore health and balance: it keeps us alive. As inherent healing forces are not easy to measure using scientific instruments, this idea tends to be dismissed by science as a vitalistic concept, and as a result many of us have become distanced from the natural world.
For the innate therapeutic force to succeed, Nature should be free to work unhindered by the numerous barriers constructed by the human race. Depending on the vitality of the individual, Nature’s healing forces will be promoted by simple things that everyone should be able to take for granted: fresh air, pure water, sunlight, adequate exercise, rest and relaxation, correct thinking and a diet appropriate to the specific, environmental cultural and genetic needs of the individual.
These concepts sound simple enough at first, but to achieve them practically in today’s society may be virtually impossible: we breathe an atmosphere tainted by heavy metals and toxic chemicals; our water is polluted with dangerous contaminants either added by the water companies, by industrial processing or by consumers of cleaning materials, and then compressed in pipes until its vitality is destroyed; sunlight is dangerously high in radiation thanks to the destruction of the Earth’s protective ozone layer; exercise is a luxury when you have to subscribe to a gym or risk the polluted outdoor air and traffic in cities; most people’s idea of rest and relaxation is to slouch in front of a television or hunch by a computer games console. Even if our brains are not hampered by any of this, it is unusual to be able to think clearly in a materialistic Western society incessantly bombarded by media images of ‘normal’ and ‘desirable’ without being swallowed up by the tempo of the psyche of our times.
Nature has a lot to contend with these days: even from before birth, a deficiency in the diet of our grandmother during pregnancy may have influenced our nutritional makeup; the mercury in our mother’s teeth, along with the pesticides and PCBs accumulated in her body all become a part of us before we enter the world, and are accepted as normal; we may be bottle-fed from birth with pasteurised, denatured dried milk originally intended to supply the mucous production needed by calves; the multiple assaults on our immature immune systems by vaccination with toxic substances cultured on animal organs; the destruction of our sense of taste with sweet or salty foods and drinks in a culture of junk food; fruits and vegetables denatured by a forced growing environment; reliance on stimulant and relaxing drugs; the reductionistic overmedication of the population to suppress any symptoms that irritate or annoy us. There are numerous other travesties of humankind that deserve a mention here. Is it anything but a miracle that we are still alive in this jungle of modern society? I have often wondered how people maintain health in this environment without making it a full-time occupation.
If you have read this far without being distracted, disgusted or depressed, you are probably looking for the happy ending. Ultimately it is down to each individual to create his or her own future. Practitioners of natural medicine can help put people on the right path, but don’t expect a magic wand to be waved and suddenly everything will be all right. It is a full-time job keeping mind and body together in the face of all the barriers that humans encounter in daily life, and sometimes staying on the right track is not easy. Are you ready to share that journey?
Normally donors and recipients of blood transfusions need to be carefully matched to avoid a transfusion reaction - an immediate antibody-antigen reaction that can result in fever, low blood pressure, low back pain, a crushing sensation in the chest, nausea, vomiting and death. There are many different blood groups, but a transfusion reaction will only occur if an individual has acquired antibodies to a different blood group through exposure to the antigen that they don't have, and are then given blood with that antigen.
The best known blood group antigens are A, B and H (the O antigen). Exposure to these antigens occur through eating food that contains antigenic components identical to the blood group that the individual does not have. Antibodies to ABO blood groups are IgM, causing destruction of transfused red blood cells, which can then block the kidneys and cause acute tubular necrosis. In unsensitised individuals the reaction may develop over days or weeks as antibodies are produced, resulting in anaemia and jaundice. Reactions to white blood cells and platelets can occur, although the consequences are less serious.
Sensitisation to the Rhesus blood group, which includes the antigens C, c, D, d, E and e, can happen before or during birth, especially with Rhesus D, if the mother is Rhesus negative and her baby is Rhesus positive.
Individuals with blood group O Rhesus negative are considered universal donors, as their red cells do not carry antigens to A, B or D. Consequently O negative blood can generally be transfused to individuals of any blood group.
It is also possible to acquire antibodies to non-self blood groups following exposure to those antigens on some non-self tissue such as a graft or incompatible blood transfusion. Examples of other blood groups involved in transfusion reactions are Kell (K, k), Duffy (Fya, Fyb, Fy) and MN (M, N). Antibodies to Rhesus and other blood groups are IgG.
Scientists at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York have now found a way to 'hide' the ABO and Rhesus antigens on the donor's red blood cells before transfusion to make their blood suitable for any recipient. Using polyethylene glycol (PEG), a polymer of the hydrocarbon ethylene oxide, stuck together with thiols to stick the PEG to the amino acid lysine on the surface of the red cell. The blood from individuals of any blood group will behave as if it is from a donor of blood group O negative. PEGylation has been used in other areas of medicine, such as PEGylated interferon, which remains in the body longer, prolonging its effectiveness. PEG has been found to be immunogenic and can induce antibodies that shorten survival of transfused PEG-RBCs in rabbits, so PEGylation may not be the best way to transfuse blood.
This is not the only way to alter red blood cells to create universal donor blood. Studies have been carried out on group B blood to remove the sugar galactose on the end of the B antigen with the enzyme galactosidase. The red blood cells from group B donors were found to be comparable to group O blood for safety and efficacy. This does not overcome the problem of Rhesus incompatibility, and also the researchers are still looking for a way to convert group A blood to group O.
The laboratory-manufactured universally compatible blood is still some way off. For now, it looks like it is best to get the closest match possible, and the best way to do that is to receive a transfusion of your own blood that you have stored prior to a scheduled operation.
Nacharaju P, Boctor FN, Manjula BN, and Acharya SA.
Surface decoration of red blood cells with maleimidophenyl-polyethylene glycol facilitated by thiolation with iminothiolane: an approach to mask A, B, and D antigens to generate universal red blood cells.
Transfusion, March 1, 2005; 45(3): 374-83.
Progress in modulating the RBC membrane to produce transfusable universal/stealth donor RBCs.
Transfus Med Rev. 2004 Oct;18(4):245-56.
Garratty G, Telen MJ, Petz LD.
Red cell antigens as functional molecules and obstacles to transfusion.
Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program). 2002;:445-62. Review.
Kruskall MS, AuBuchon JP, Anthony KY, Herschel L, Pickard C, Biehl R, Horowitz M, Brambilla DJ, Popovsky MA.
Transfusion to blood group A and O patients of group B RBCs that have been enzymatically converted to group O.
Transfusion. 2000 Nov;40(11):1290-8.
Milk is a bovine secretion that is intended to allow rapid growth to calves following immediate consumption from their mother. It is widely consumed by humans, generally after pasteurisation and chilled storage, but may also be sterilised or further processed by heat treatment.
Research shows that one of the growth-promoting actions of this substance may be caused by the action of leptin in the body.
Leptin is a hormone secreted by body fat cells that adjusts food intake relative to energy expenditure. Leptin also plays a general role in regulating many of the physiological responses that are observed with changes in nutritional state.
Discovered by Jeffrey Friedman in 1994, Leptin has been shown to travel to the brain and other body tissues, causing fat loss and decreased appetite. In the brain, leptin affects food intake by acting on distinct classes of neurons in the hypothalamus that express the leptin receptor.
Leptin decreases both the desire to eat, and the deposit of fat in the body by acting on two classes of neurons. Leptin suppresses the activity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and it enhances the activity of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Conversely, the absence of leptin increases both the desire to eat and the deposit of fat by exciting NPY neurons and suppressing the activity of POMC neurons.
In humans, leptin concentration in the blood correlates with body fat content and is usually higher in obese subjects, suggesting that human obesity is generally associated with insensitivity to leptin. However, 5–10 percent of obese individuals have relatively low levels of leptin, indicating a reduced rate of leptin production. The fact that some obese individuals have low leptin levels suggests that decreased production can also lead to obesity. This suggests that in most cases the cause of leptin resistance and obesity is equivalent to insulin resistance in type II diabetes.
Diet-induced weight loss in humans results in a decrease in leptin concentration. This may explain the high failure rate of dieting, as low levels of leptin appears to be a strong stimulus to weight gain.
When fasting on water only, appetite is generally suppressed after the first one to two days, when liver stores of glucose are used up and the body moves into ketosis (fat-burning). After a prolonged fast when all body fat stores are used up, starvation occurs. Starvation is the breakdown of essential body organs.
Research in the journal Diabetes shows that fat-containing milk, and of which fats are 98% triglycerides, immediately inhibits leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier. Fat-free milk does not have this effect. In this study both starvation and diet-induced obesity elevated triglycerides in the blood and decreased the transport of leptin across the BBB, whereas short-term fasting decreased triglycerides and increased leptin transport.
Triglyceride-mediated leptin resistance may have evolved as a mechanism to restore this fasting loss of appetite at the onset of starvation. Decreasing triglycerides may potentiate the effect of leptin to reduce appetite by enhancing leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier (BB.
The Complete Blood Type Encyclopedia outlines natural approaches to reducing triglycerides. ------------ References:
W.A. Banks et al., “Triglycerides induce leptin resistance at the blood–brain barrier,” Diabetes, 53:1253-1260, 2004.
A.J. Kastin, V. Akerstrom, “Fasting, but not adrenalectomy, reduces transport of leptin into the brain,” Peptides, 21:679–682, May 2000.