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Dear Dr. Greenfield,
I have decided to try the blood type diet (A). I am aware that Dr. D'Adamo suggests avoiding smoked meat and seafood. I am assuming this is due to the nitrate/nitrite added to the food. However, I shop at Whole Foods Market and they smoke their seafood in house, naturally, without any preservatives. Would this be okay to eat on the blood type diet?
Smoking is a way of preserving foods using smoke typically from hardwood burnt at low temperatures: Certain compounds given off by burning wood have a preservative or antimicrobial effect on the food, and add flavour. Other compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have a detrimental effect on human health at levels found in cooked foods, they are certainly a risk for workers occupationally exposed to PAHs, and also for cigarette smokers. Certain PAHs may become more toxic when metabolised, and metabolism can be dependent on individual polymorphisms. For example, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is the primary cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme that biologically activates benzopyrene, a tetracyclic hydrocarbon present in smoked food, and the main carcinogen in cigarette smoke. Charbroiled and smoked meats and fish contain more PAHs than uncooked products, with up to 2.0 µg/kg of benzopyrene detected in smoked fish.
Some people may be more at risk from eating smoked foods or other exposure to PAHs: Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1 inducibility has been implicated as a factor for susceptibility to lung and laryngeal cancer. CYP1A1 may be induced by other substances. The mechanism by which PAH causes cancer is thought to be via the binding of metabolites to DNA. Infants may be at risk for exposure to PAHs: Animal studies have shown that PAHs and metabolites cross the placenta; Because PAHs are excreted in breast milk, nursing infants of exposed mothers can be exposed through breastfeeding. Polymorphisms causing glutathione transferase deficiencies (GSTM1) may result in elevated breast cancer risk from PAHs. Other risk factors may include blood group, with type A individuals having a greater risk of certain types of cancer, although this can be masked by other genetic factors overriding the blood group phenotype.
Sodium nitrite (E250) is a preservative added to meats, which can form carcinogenic nitrosamines when exposed to high temperatures. Nitrosamine formation can be inhibited by the addition of vitamin C.
The Blood Type Diet™ is based on naturopathic principles, and as such advocates avoiding or minimising consumption of foods that may enhance disease risk either for the individual or for the population in general.
1. Grimmer G. 1968. "Carcinogenic hydrocarbons in the human environment". Dtsch Apoth Ztg 108:529.
2. van der Hel OL, Peeters PH, Hein DW, Doll MA, Grobbee DE, et al. "NAT2 slow acetylation and GSTM1 null genotypes may increase postmenopausal breast cancer risk in long-term smoking women." Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Jul;13(7):399-407. Pubmed.
3. Anderson DE, Haas C. "Blood type A and familial breast cancer." Cancer. 1984 Nov 1;54(9):1845-9. PubMed.
4. Mackerness CW, Leach SA, Thompson MH, Hill MJ. "The inhibition of bacterially mediated N-nitrosation by vitamin C: relevance to the inhibition of endogenous N-nitrosation in the achlorhydric stomach." Carcinogenesis 1989; 10(2) 397-399. PubMed.
Yes, unfortunately even real wood charcoal releases PAHs.
I have been a Type 4 diet follower for many years and find it has helped. Something I have observed and have questions about is, where are the lectins present in foods, and has there been any micro analyzation into this. For example: Type B should avoid consumption of olives, yet, olive oil tests as beneficial. So problem causing lectins are existing somewhere else in the fruit or the process of making the oil renders them harmless. Tomatoes should be avoided by type B as well. Has any research been done to determine if the lectins are contained in the friut as a whole, or are they localized in the skin or seeds of the tomato. As well has any research looked into what effect the heat from cooking would have on lectin content in fruits and vegetables. And finally is there any effect on lectin levels in foods when combined. Have lectin combinations been researched? Example: What would be the reaction if lectins from the tomato were combined with the lectins from garlic, then tested for blood type reactions. These questions have been plaguing on me for a couple of years now. Dr. Naboru Muramoto, in his book "Healing Ourselves" suggests eating certain foods with animal proteins can minimize the deteriorating effects associated with the consumption of animal proteins. He believes these certain foods help usher out toxins present. He also believes that the western diet includes an over consumption of animal proteins.
The Blood Type Diet uses incompatible blood-type specific lectins as one of the reasons for certain foods to be classed as avoid or beneficial for individuals of particular blood types. Details of where the lectin is found is listed in Lecster, the searchable lectin database. The GenoType Diet, using the new SWAMI GenoType™ software, can be programmed to recommend combining of foods, called GenoHarmonic combinations, which will upregulate whatever metabolic pathway is deficient in individuals of that particular GenoType (methylation, ubiquinilation, histone function or glycation removal) as well as taking lectin compatibility and other blood type factors into account. This is a much more precise way of combining foods for effects specific to the individual, as well as being constantly updated with the latest research. The professional version of SWAMI XPress, SWAMI GenoType™ is available from selected IfHI certified practitioners.
The over-consumption of animal proteins is a broad statement, which should take into account several factors, such as:
* Does the consumer have a metabolism geared up for animal protein consumption?
* Does the animal protein come from wild, free-range or grass-fed sources?
* Is the type of protein compatible with the blood type of the individual?
PAHs reduce the nutritional value of the fish because you will need more antioxidants and use more resources to counteract the negative effects of the PAHs on the body. Tom.
I'm sure that all of these effects are relatively minor in the end, but I think that if I do eat a lot of smoked meat off the barbeque, then I'll hold off on them...
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