Category: Prior Clinic Blog
JOURNAL: Gastroenterology 0204
ABSTRACT: So-called "good bacteria" in the intestines, which may help people with inflammatory bowel disease, allergies and some forms of cancer, work even when they're inactive.
COMMENTARY: Called probiotics, they are bacterial organisms that contribute to the health and balance of the intestinal tract. Recent studies have proven the health benefit of these bacteria.
The effectiveness of probiotics has been attributed to their live, metabolic activity. But active probiotics are used in only a small number of food products, such as yogurt. Active probiotics are unsuitable for most food products because they induce fermentation, which changes the taste, texture and freshness of food on an hourly basis.
This new study, by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Shaare Zedak Medical Center in Jerusalem, found probiotics contain immune system-stimulating DNA that makes them just as effective when they're inactive.
The finding offers the potential to use inactivated probiotics in a variety of food products.
The study also outlines a method to determine and select which probiotic bacteria provide the most benefit for people with inflammatory bowel disease.
JOURNAL: Fertil Steril. 2004;81:93-98
AUTHORS: Giancarlo Balercia
ABSTRACT: Exogenous administration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may play a positive role in the treatment of infertile men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia, according to results of an open, uncontrolled pilot study.
COMMENTARY: "The positive effect of exogenous administration could be explained on the basis of the well-known involvement of CoQ10 in mitochondrial bioenergetics and of its widely recognized antioxidant properties," write Giancarlo Balercia, MD, and colleagues, from the University of Ancona in Italy.
Investigators selected 22 patients (mean age, 31 years; range, 25-39 years) with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Subjects had a clinical history of primary intertility of at least three years. In addition to medical screening, researchers measured subjects' testicular volume using Prader's orchidometer.
Eligiblity criteria included (1) sperm count greater than 20 x 106/mL, sperm motility (forward motility, class a and b, according to World Health Organization [WHO] 1999 criteria) less than 50% at two distinct sperm analyses, and normal sperm morphology greater than 50%; (2) seminal white blood cells (WBCs) less than 1 x 106/mL, negative sperm culture, and Chlamydia and Mycoplasma ureoliticum detection; (3) normal serum levels of gonadotropins, T, E2, and PRL; (4) absence of infectious genital diseases, anatomical abnormalities of the genital tract including varicocele, and antispermatozoa antibodies (Ab); (5) absence of systemic diseases or treatment with other drugs during the three months before enrollment in the present study; and (6) absence of smoking, alcohol, drug addiction, or occupational chemical exposure.
Researchers employed hysterosalpingography to rule out abnormal fallopian tube anatomy in female partners. Ovulation was also deemed normal.
Patients underwent oral administration of CoQ10, 200 mg/day twice daily for six months. Researchers performed clinical examination, semen analysis including computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), and CoQ10 and phosphatidylcholine assays at baseline, after six months of therapy, and six months after termination (washout).
After treatment, CoQ10 levels increased in seminal plasma; the mean value rising significantly from 42.0 ± 5.1 ng/mL at baseline to 127.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL after six months of CoQ10 administration (P < .005). Researchers also detected a significant increase of CoQ10 content in sperm cells (from 3.1 ± 0.4 to 6.5 ± 0.3 ng/106 cells; P < .05).
Phosphatidylcholine levels increased significantly both in seminal plasma and sperm cells after treatment (from 1.49 ± 0.50 to 5.84 ± 1.15 µm; P < .05; and from 6.83 ± 0.98 to 9.67 ± 1.23 nmol/106 cells; P < .05, respectively)
Forward (class a+b) motility of sperm cells went from 9.13% ± 2.50% to 16.34% ± 3.43% after six months (P < .05). Investigators also found a significant increase of curvilinear velocity (VCL) (from 26.31 ± 1.50 to 46.43 ± 2.28 µm/second; P < .05) and straight progressive velocity (VSL) (from 15.20 ± 1.30 to 20.40 ± -2.17 µm/second; P < .05) after treatment.
Using the Cramer's index of association, the investigators found a positive dependence among the relative variations, baseline and after treatment, of seminal plasma or intracellular CoQ10 content and of VCL and VSL kinetic parameters (Cramer's V = 0.4637, 0.3818, 0.3467, and 0.5148, respectively). After six months of washout, the investigators found a significant reduction in sperm forward motility (from 16.34% µ 3.43% to 9.50% µ 2.28%; P < .001).
CoQ10 oral administration was well tolerated. Three couples (13.6%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy within three months of discontinuation of therapy.
"The data of the present study show a significant improvement of sperm cell kinetic features after 6 months of administration of CoQ10, on the basis of both manual and computer- assisted evaluation," write Dr. Balercia and colleagues.
"Furthermore, our results are the first to demonstrate that exogenous administration of CoQ10 leads to increased levels in seminal plasma and in sperm cells."
STUDY: Survey of bodymeasurements reveals skyrocketing obesity rates in kids and adults
JOURNAL: Journal of the American Medical Association
AUTHORS: Cynthia Ogden
ABSTRACT: Americans are even fatter than they think they are, with nearly a third of all adults — almost 59 million people — rated obese in a disturbing new government survey based on actual body measurements.
COMMENTARY: One in five Americans, or 19.8 percent, had considered themselves obese in a 2000 survey based on people’s own assessments of their girth.
The new 1999-2000 survey puts the real number at 31 percent — a doubling over the past two decades. The new number is considered more reliable since people consistently underestimate their weight. The number of those considered overweight but not yet obese increased during the past 20 years from 56 percent to 65 percent. An accompanying survey found the number of overweight children has tripled over the same period.
“The problem keeps getting worse,” said Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson. “This has profound health implications.”
Cynthia Ogden, one of the authors of the studies from the National Center for Health Statistics, said increases in portion sizes, eating out more frequently and an inactive population were all to blame for the problem.
The measurement-based survey of young people found that 15 percent of youngsters ages 6 to 19 were seriously overweight. That is nearly 9 million youths and triple the number in a similar assessment from 1980. Even toddlers were affected, with more than 10 percent of children ages 2 through 5 seriously overweight, compared with 7.2 percent in 1994.
The studies published The Journal of the American Medical Association found that the biggest weight gains have been seen in people over the age of 60, black and Mexican-American teens and black women.
Obesity increases the risk for a number of serious ailments, including diabetes, heart disease, strokes, high blood pressure and some types of cancer.
Obesity is defined as having a body-mass index of 30 or above. The index is a formula in which a person’s body weight is divided by height squared. A BMI between 25 and 30 is considered overweight.
STUDY: Coenzyme Q-10 prevents nerve cell death
JOURNAL: Archives of Neurology
AUTHORS: Dr. Clifford Shults
ABSTRACT: A small but promising study found that the over-the-counter dietary supplement coenzyme Q-10, or CoQ10, may slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease.
COMMENTARY: Existing treatments may ease symptoms of the degenerative brain disorder but are not believed to affect the underlying disease process. The new study found evidence that the naturally occurring compound CoQ10 may help stop the nerve cell death that characterizes Parkinson’s.
The study involved just 80 people. Half ate maple-nut flavored wafers containing various CoQ10 doses, half took a placebo for up to 16 months. By the study’s end, the 23 patients on the highest daily doses had 44 percent less decline in mental function, movement and ability to perform daily living tasks than the placebo group.
Research has suggested that energy-supplying structures inside cells called mitochondria may be impaired in Parkinson’s disease. CoQ10, a compound made in the body, is believed to help mitochondria function.
Patients studied had early-stage Parkinson’s and took a placebo or CoQ10 in doses of 300 milligrams, 600 mgs or 1,200 mgs daily. Their symptoms were evaluated for up to 16 months. By the eighth month, the 23 patients on the highest dose showed significantly less impairment than the others.
The results indicate that follow-up research at perhaps even higher doses should proceed “pretty aggressively,” said Dr. Bernard Ravina of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, which funded the study.
STUDY: Tobacco harmful in any form
JOURNAL: J Epidemiol Community Health 2002;56:702-706.
AUTHORS: Dr. Eva Prescott
ABSTRACT: Even smokers who consume as little as 3 to 5 grams of tobacco per day and those who do not inhale are placing themselves at increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and death, according to a report published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.
COMMENTARY: The current findings dispel the myth held by many smokers that consumption of few cigarettes or smoking without inhalation is not hazardous to their health.
Women appear to be particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of such smoking habits. The authors believe this is because women are more prone to respiratory disease than men and because smoking alters the natural balance of the cardioprotective hormone estrogen.
The current study involved 6505 women and 5644 men who were drawn from the general population of Copenhagen in 1976. At enrollment, the subjects were surveyed regarding their current and past smoking habits. The subjects were followed until 1998 to determine the occurrence of first MI as well as all cause mortality.
For study purposes, smoking one cigarette was equated to 1 gram of tobacco consumption, one cheroot to 3 grams, and one cigar to 5 grams of tobacco.
Women who consumed 3 to 5 grams of tobacco per day were more than twice as likely as women who never smoked to experience an MI, the authors note. In addition, such women were 86% more likely to die during the study period than were those who never smoked.
Among men, similar increased risks were noted when the use of 6 to 9 grams of tobacco per day was compared with non-use.
The risk of MI and all-cause mortality was also increased in female smokers who did not inhale. However, for men, only the all-cause mortality risk was significantly increased relative to non-smoking.
The type of tobacco product used significantly influenced the mortality risk. Specifically, cigarette smokers were more likely to die during the study period than were smokers of other tobacco products.
Although from a toxicology point of view it is not surprising that the dose-response relation between smoking and morbidity does not have a lower threshold limit, from a public health point of view it is important to recognize the increased risk associated with even a low consumption of tobacco.
Bottom line is try your best not to smoke!!!!!!!